All existing laws in a country may be divided into two broad categories:
-National or Domestic law and
Both these categories may again be divided into two sub-categories:
-public law and
Public Law: Public law determines and regulates the organization and functioning of the state and determines the relationship of the state with its subjects. The test of public law depends upon the nature of the parties as the relationship in question; if one of the parties is the state, the relationship belongs to public law, Thus constitutional law. criminal law. tax law, administrative law etc. are the branches of public law.
Private Law: Private law is that branch of law which determines and govern the relations of citizens with each other. In the domain of private law panics are private individuals and the state, taking the position of an arbitrator, through its judicial organ adjudicates the matters in dispute between them. Law of contracts, torts, of property etc. are examples of private law.
Substantive law and Procedural Law: Both public and private law may be substantive law or procedural (adjective) Iaw .
When a particular law defines right or crimes or any status. it is called substantive law.For example. penal law, law of contract, law of property etc. are substantive laws.
When a particular law determines the remedies or outlines the procedures of litigation, it is called procedural law.e.g. Civil Procedure Code. Criminal Procedure Code etc.
The distinction between the substantive and procedural law is not an always easy and clear-cut. The same law may be procedural as well as substantive.
(লেখাটি স্বত্ব সংরক্ষিত, অন্যত্র কপি/নকল বারিত।তবে স্বত্ব উল্লেখপূর্বক হুবহু প্রিন্ট অথবা শেয়ার করতে বাধা নেই।)